Category: Technology

What is 3D Printing and How Does it Work

A typical 3D printing process begins by designing the object on a computer and then connecting to a printer. The printer then glues the individual slices together, much like a baker would make a whole loaf. There are many advantages to this process, including a lower cost than conventional hobbies and the ability to create unique and custom items. For a complete understanding of 3D printing, read the article below.

Costs Less than Conventional Hobbies

Costs Less than Conventional Hobbies

If you’re looking for a fun and cost-effective hobby, 3D printing might be the solution. The cost of 3D printing a good hobbyist machine is between $125 and $200 a year. And while 3D printing is a time-consuming and expensive hobby, it can actually save you money in the long run. Here are some benefits of 3D printing. One of the most obvious advantages is cost-saving.

The main factor that affects the cost of 3D printing is the type of printer you choose. Entry-level 3D printers are fairly cheap, but will only be useful for basic applications. Professional and prosumer models are more expensive, and are better suited for large-scale industrial applications. The cost of 3D printing is divided into three major categories: material, labor, and operating expenses. For the hobbyist, the costs may include software.

Additive Process

The term “3D printing” is becoming increasingly interchangeable with “additive manufacturing,” which involves building parts layer by layer using digital 3-D design data. Additive manufacturing techniques can use various types of materials, including metals, plastics, composites, and more. In this article, we’ll discuss some of the benefits and uses of additive manufacturing. This technology can be beneficial for many industries, from small to large-scale production.

The technique of additive manufacturing is rapidly becoming a key component of industrial production. Technical ceramics are being studied as a possible substitute for plastic, such as in the manufacturing of aerospace and automotive components. In this article, Dr. Krishna Uibel, a doctorate in materials science, offers an overview of additive ceramics. She explains the process of additive ceramics and what the benefits are for industrial production. This is a rapidly growing field that will have significant economic impacts in the near future.

Advantages

Advantages

While traditional manufacturing methods have their own benefits, they also have significant drawbacks. Traditional methods often result in poorly designed prototypes that do not meet quality standards. By contrast, 3d printing service allows for an incredibly consistent production of parts. By combining ingredients one at a time, 3D printers can ensure that every part is produced correctly, without having to worry about air bubbles or uneven baking. Ultimately, this reduces manufacturing costs, while ensuring that parts are consistently good quality. 3D printing also offers several advantages to designers of products, such as faster prototyping and better product design.

The advantages of 3D printing go beyond aesthetics. Because it utilizes more sustainable materials, it produces less waste for each single part. It also streamlines the assembly process, reducing the overall supply chain. As a result, 3D printing is an extremely affordable method of manufacturing. Even for small businesses and educational organizations, 3D printing is an excellent option. In fact, it can help create a better quality product faster than traditional manufacturing methods.

How to Choose a Web Development Company

To choose a web development company, you must pay attention to certain factors. These include experience, collaboration, and portfolio. Consider whether the company will be able to meet your needs and your budget. Look at the company’s portfolio to know whether it has done projects similar to yours. You should also check out its customer reviews. If you find positive reviews, you can go ahead and contact the company for further consultation.

Communication and Collaboration Skillsets of a Web Development Company

Communication and Collaboration Skillsets of a Web Development Company

When it comes to the perfect web development collaboration, communication and backlog prioritization are essential. Without these two elements, a web development company can run into trouble with projects and miss their business vision. Communication skillsets are essential to ensure a successful web development collaboration, because any breach in communication can result in a non-functional project. An excellent web development company will be able to communicate with you through various communication channels, such as email and video calls, and they should also be accessible through collaborative tools and advanced communication systems. PSDTowpsit offers the best web development services.

Portfolio

When you are evaluating a web development company, you should pay attention to the portfolio. You should find out what their specialty is, and if their portfolios are representative of their work, then you will want to hire them. One good example is the portfolio of Prashant Sani, a web developer based in India. His portfolio is impressive, with its rounded corners, soft shadows, and floating devices. Another example is the portfolio of Andrew Borstein, a web and mobile developer based in India. Andrew Borstein is a creative mind and has a portfolio with all the basic features, but has a style that is not as common as Prashant Sani’s.

Accessibility

Accessibility

Aside from increasing sales and improving the user experience, accessibility can also decrease legal risks and strengthen your reputation. It is estimated that there are approximately $544 billion in disposable spending power among people with disabilities. Moreover, accessibility improves search engine optimization and strengthens your brand name. By providing a website that is accessible to all users, you can enjoy increased sales and improve your brand image. Plus, it’s the right thing to do.

Value

When evaluating web development companies, look for a few key features, such as experience, collaboration, and portfolios. While you are evaluating potential companies, consider whether your needs align with theirs. Look for the following qualities when evaluating the experience, reputation, and pricing of prospective companies. If you’re looking for a custom website, you should be able to see samples of their work to determine how much it will cost to build one.

Five Reasons Why You Should Install CCTV at Your Home

Aside from helping protect property, a CCTV system also lowers your insurance premiums. Insurers will pay less for the additional protection it provides, and this means you will save money in the long run. Here are five reasons why you should consider getting a CCTV system for your home:

Reduces the Likelihood of Making an Insurance Claim

To reduce the risk of making an insurance claim, a policyholder should try to avoid incidents that will cost them money. Often, this involves reducing risk by installing security systems or sprinkler systems. Loss control programs can also help reduce the likelihood of accidents. These factors may lead to a price cut or lower premiums. For many policyholders, the best way to avoid filing a claim is to reduce the number of tickets.

Acts as a Deterrent to Criminals

Acts as a Deterrent to Criminals

One of the benefits of CCTV is that it can be used as a deterrent to criminals. This is particularly true in areas where crime is high, such as rural areas. Some businesses have valuable stock that can be targeted by criminals. Furthermore, CCTV can help in monitoring a specific area. There are some disadvantages to CCTV, however. The installation of CCTV is not guaranteed to deter criminals.

While installing CCTV is an important investment, it can be counterproductive if criminals are unaware that it is there. Many studies have shown that CCTV reduces crime by a statistically insignificant percentage. One way of doing this is to install effective signage. This will help people to realize that CCTV is present. They will avoid an area where CCTV is installed. Besides this, CCTV can be a deterrent to criminals.

Reduces Burglary Rates

While there are some improvements in the number of burglaries, the fact remains that the overall rate of residential break-ins is not declining. According to the U.S. Department of Justice, property crimes accounted for $14.3 billion in 2015, and there were more than 325,000 reported burglaries in 2015. A large portion of home invasions occur during the day, with break-ins occurring more frequently between 6am and 6pm.

Generally, the majority of break-ins occur when people are not home. To reduce your risk of being targeted, make it appear that you are. One Co-op Insurance study suggests that leaving a television on may deter a burglar. Adding motion-sensor lights or window treatments may also deter potential burglars. In addition, it’s a good idea to consider changing your windows and doors to make it harder for intruders to tell if you’re home or not, Check out this site.

Prevents Bullying

Prevents Bullying

A school with CCTV is an institution that reduces bullying. By catching bullying on film, staff and school officials can intervene and help a victimized child. These cameras are effective in reducing bullying, reducing fights, and curbing anti-social behaviour. The BBC reported that bullying is responsible for 160 claims of crime on a school day, with burglary, theft, and robbery being the most common types of crimes.

Bullying is an important issue in the country, impacting all ages. A safe environment is essential for the development and academic success of a child, so installing security cameras in schools can help prevent bullying before it happens. One of the main benefits of security cameras is that they can provide video evidence and help police officials investigate bullying incidents. They can also record a variety of activities that would otherwise be missed by school staff, such as cheating on exams. Installing security cameras in a school can also prevent other problems like stealing, drug use, and unauthorized entry.

How Close Should a Projector Be to a Screen

There are several factors to consider when deciding how close a projector should be to a screen. These factors include the viewing angle, Screen size, and the throw ratio. Here’s some guidance to help you figure out the best distance for your projection setup. Also, remember that if you’re seated in the back of a cinema, it can be difficult to see the entire screen. Likewise, it’s important to make sure your meeting room has good visibility of the screen, and the 4/6/8 rule is often useful in calculating the distance between the screen and the projector.

Distance from projector to screen

Throw distance: The distance between a projector and screen is an important aspect of video projection. This distance is the distance required to “throw” the image from the projector to the screen. In addition to the throw distance, you should consider the screen size. In most cases, a projector should be mounted 6 feet from the screen. To determine throw distance, multiply the projector’s width by its height. Ideally, you should have at least a 2x throw distance between your projector and screen, check more details here.

The ideal distance varies between projectors. The farther away from the projector, the less light the screen will receive. This distance can be anywhere from a few feet to ten feet, depending on the projector. You can use the projector’s manual to find the recommended distance. The average distance between a projector and screen is 97-106 inches, which is approximately eight feet. As with screen size, there are some factors to consider when choosing the right distance.

Throw ratio

The Throw Ratio of a projector is the distance from the lens to the screen, measured in feet. The ratio is often stated as one number. In reality, it is a comparison of two dimensions, W and D. Typically, the specification will divide the distance by W. In other words, a large throw ratio means that the image will be very tightly focused. It is important to understand this difference when choosing a projector.

To figure the throw ratio of a projector, the distance between the projector and screen is divided by the width of the projected image. A typical throw ratio is 2.0, which means that the projector should be placed approximately two feet away from the screen. This means that a five-foot-wide image will require a throw distance of ten feet. Fortunately, most projectors come with throw ratios as low as 0.8, so you can still choose the best one for your home theater.

Screen size

The ideal viewing distance of a projector from the screen is often called the visual acuity. This distance is different depending on the projector and its resolution. Generally speaking, the further away the screen is from the projector, the smaller the viewing angle will be. If the screen is 80 inches, the ideal distance can be anywhere between 97 and 106 inches, which is approximately 8 feet.

The distance from the projector lens to the projection screen is known as the “throw” distance. Depending on the model, this distance can vary greatly. For example, one model may work well at 6 feet, while another model may require the projector to be as close as six inches to the screen. To determine the best distance, multiply the projected distance by the height of the screen to get a rough estimate of the optimum viewing distance.

Viewing angle

A proper viewing angle is one of the most important factors to consider when selecting a projector. The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) recommends that the viewing angle be at least thirty degrees, while THX and CEDIA recommend that it be at least forty degrees. In addition, the higher the viewing angle, the shorter the distance from the front to the rear of the screen. You can use a viewing distance calculator to figure out the appropriate viewing angle for your specific screen size and seating position.

Sumamry

The viewing angle of a projector depends on the screen width and the distance from the screen. Higher gain screens are generally brighter than lower ones. The most effective viewing angle is approximately 35 degrees away from the center of the screen. If you are 35 degrees off center, you’ll be seeing the image in dim light, while a 1.3-gain screen will be bright and vivid. If you are using a CRT projector, make sure that you set the gain to 2.4.

Things To Consider While Selecting A WordPress Hosting Plan

You should be aware of several factors before selecting a WordPress hosting service. These include support quality, scalability, security, and price. The above-mentioned aspects are critical to the success of your website, and a reliable hosting service should provide them all. But how do you know if you’re choosing the right one? Read on to learn more about these factors. And remember that the more you learn about these factors, the better you’ll be able to choose a WordPress hosting provider.

Support Quality

Support Quality

Consider support quality when selecting a WordPress hosting. Good hosting teams are friendly, knowledgeable, and efficient. They get to the root of your issue quickly. Large hosting companies usually use less qualified support techs, who have to deal with irate customers. A higher-quality hosting company has a well-trained and knowledgeable staff. If you’ve ever had trouble with a web hosting company, you know that support is essential.

Customer support is another important factor in choosing a WordPress hosting company. Not all hosting providers offer round-the-clock technical support, but those that do are typically much faster and more accessible than the alternatives. Make sure to select a company with WordPress-specific expertise, and look for a live chat option. Not all hosting companies offer live chat support, though. Some only provide basic server management and security assistance. Ask the provider about the time it takes for them to respond to your ticket.

Scalability

There are several factors you should look for when selecting a WordPress hosting provider. The scalability of the hosting provider is crucial as it will determine how your website will expand. If your site isn’t scalable, you may want to switch to another CMS, but it’s important to understand the factors that will determine the scalability of your site. Thankfully, WordPress has excellent scalability features that will allow you to scale your site as your business grows.

Scalability

WordPress is known for handling high volumes of traffic, but it’s also prone to performance problems. To ensure that your site doesn’t hit bottlenecks or experience excessive downtime, you should find a web host that specializes in WordPress. Make sure they have a team that monitors the hosting environment in real time. WordPress themes can slow down your site, so look for ones that have been specially coded to address scalability and speed concerns.

Security

When selecting a WordPress hosting, consider security as one of the most important considerations. In recent years, many hacks have targeted WordPress websites, and the number of infections continues to rise. A good host should have policies in place to protect websites from such threats, and it should be clear what they can and cannot do for your site. If you want to ensure your site’s security, consider a fully managed WordPress hosting plan, which takes care of all the technical details. You can also choose to pay for third-party security protection services, which offer malware scanning, DDoS protection, firewall protection, and more.

If you’re a developer, you’re probably aware of the importance of web security. Unfortunately, big sites are regularly breached, leaking private information. That’s why you should always go with a provider that uses the latest and best security measures. A web application firewall, SSL certificate, and automated backup solutions will all help keep your website safe from hackers. However, you should always make sure the WordPress hosting provider you choose has a track record of protecting their clients and implementing the latest cybersecurity measures, Check out the post right here.

Price

price of a WordPress hosting

The price of a WordPress hosting plan depends on several factors. First, the hosting service must be able to host multiple WordPress websites. WordPress sites are resource intensive and require more resources than a simple blog or portfolio. Additionally, running a customer support team requires a lot of money, so the hosting provider must hire enough agents and train them properly. This in turn increases the price. Therefore, the more resources your hosting service can provide, the more you’ll have to pay.

The cost of a WordPress hosting plan varies depending on the type of hosting, bandwidth, and storage needs. Each website has different needs, so different plans may cost different amounts. A simple WordPress blog won’t need as much storage as an eCommerce site, which uploads the entire inventory. You’ll need to factor these costs into your budget when determining how much you can afford. However, you can find inexpensive WordPress hosting options to meet your needs.

3D Printing Troubleshooting All Common Problems

If your 3D printer is having problems, you need to check the filament. Many 3D printers can’t detect the filament and will cause the print head to move. In these cases, you need to lower the travel speed and clean the printer. You can also try to adjust the settings in the software to see if this will fix the problem. But if it’s not working, you might have a platform problem.

Keeps Your Print From Failing

Keeps Your Print From Failing

The most common problem with 3D printers is that the top layer has gaps or holes. This gap is often visible only near the end of the print process. It seems like there are holes between the layers, causing the print to fail. To fix this problem, you should increase the number of solid layers on top. This will help to fill in the gaps. It’s also a good idea to use glue and calibrate the bed level on heated printers.

 Common Issues with 3D Printing

Another common 3D printing issue is bad bridging. A bridge can be made without support material, but the result will be thin and lacking thickness. So if you’re experiencing this issue, you should increase the temperature of your extruder. Make sure you aim the fans at your model so that they can direct the airflow into the model. If the filament is too hot, it will lead to a weak infill layer. Whether you plan for to discover the latest information about 3D printing, you must sneak a peek at Pick3dprinter website.

Warps Occur Near the End of a Print

A very common 3D printing problem is called warping. This is a problem that occurs near the end of a print. The top layer has visible gaps or holes between adjacent layers. The print is likely to fail because of this gap. To fix this problem, you can increase the number of solid layers on the top. This will fill the gaps. If this doesn’t solve the problem, try lowering the temperature.

Care for Your Print

Wavy prints have rings or waves, and it is important to take care of them as soon as possible. When this happens, you can try to fix the problem by adjusting the settings. If you’re using an older printer, it’s best to check it for warping. This will prevent the print from being warped. A warped print will have gaps. While it may be a small problem, it can cause a large gap.

Prevent Wavy Prints

Prevent Wavy Prints

If you have printed several times before, you probably have seen a few other problems. The first is wavy prints. If your prints are wavy, you’ll notice that they are not thick. This can be caused by motors and fans, or by worn bearings. Be sure to monitor the printer’s settings and vibration levels. If these are not accurate, you may need to re-install the entire printer.

Conclusion:

A wavy print means that the top layer is too thick and has a lack of definition. This can be caused by a worn bearing or a worn motor. When the print is wavy, you should adjust the temperature of the extruder to prevent this from happening. By raising the temperature, you’ll be able to fix the problem in no time.

Top Reasons Why You Should Use Gmail for Business

The Google search engine powers the Gmail app. While you might not be using it for business purposes, it’s still an excellent way to find information about any topic. It’s easy-to-use interface makes it easy to read and respond to mail, and its mobile and cloud-based features make it ideal for business needs. This article will explain the advantages of Gmail, including the many ways it can help your business.

Allows Multiple Accounts

Allows Multiple Accounts

No more complicated mail management systems. Gmail’s multi-user feature lets you add multiple accounts without any hassle. Simply add an account with the username and password of each, and you’ll be able to sort through all of the messages with ease. The free version of Gmail has up to 25GB of storage for business users, allowing you to store large files. The free version isn’t limited to just email messages; it also allows you to access other resources, such as calendars, contacts, and even documents. Whether you intend to additional resources about entrar no gmail, browse this site.

Free 15 GB of storage

The free version of Gmail offers 15 GB of storage, which you can share with Google Drive, Google Photos, and Google Docs. Plus, it has a wide range of integrations, including Outlook, POP3, and IMAP. You can also check your Gmail account from your iPhone using Apple Mail. Another great feature of Gmail is its search capabilities. It skips Trash folders and advanced searches let you quickly find emails without spending a lot of time searching through your inbox.

Low-Cost and Maintenance-Free

Gmail is a good choice for businesses. The service is low-cost and maintenance-free. Since it stores data in the cloud, your company’s IT department will not have to worry about managing the system. You can also create an account for your employees and grant them access to your services. Lastly, you don’t have to worry about backing up your data since it is stored on Google servers.

Provides Privacy and Security

Provides Privacy and Security

Another great feature of Gmail is its unlimited storage space. The service provides 15 GB of storage space, which is shared with Google Photos and Google Drive. It also has more than enough storage for your contacts. You can send and receive messages from other computers, as long as you can access your email. There are many other reasons to use Gmail, including: Its privacy and security. It supports a wide range of email programs.

Easy to Manage

Gmail is low-cost and maintenance-free. It is accessible from any computer with a web browser. It doesn’t require IT support. If you’re a business owner, you should consider using Gmail to manage your mail. You don’t need to hire a separate IT department for your business. And if you’re a student, you can get the best possible education from a university.

Summary

Gmail has no security risk. You can access your account even if you don’t have an internet connection. Messages will be stored on Google’s servers, making it inaccessible to hackers. This can lead to a lot of confusion and may even lead to a hack. With Gmail, you can get rid of all of your junk mail and easily set up filters. It’s easy to access all of your email from anywhere.

The-Advantages-and-Disadvantages-of-3D-Printing

There are many advantages of 3D printing, but these benefits can be counterbalanced by the disadvantages of the process. One major drawback is the lack of quality control, which can lead to counterfeit products. Because 3D printers are based on a design file, a large batch of the same item can be made, but it is difficult to trace the source of the product. Another drawback is the possibility of creating dangerous objects, such as plastic knives and guns. These could be used by terrorists or as weapons.

Rapid Prototyping with 3d Printing

The main advantage of 3D printing is its rapid prototype production. It is much cheaper than the traditional manufacturing method, so it is a viable option for businesses. Unlike conventional manufacturing methods, however, the initial costs of 3D printing are similar, so it makes the process more affordable for small and medium-sized businesses. The disadvantage of conventional manufacturing methods is that they require mass-production, which creates storage problems. In contrast, 3D printing allows you to make parts on a one-off basis, so there is no need to worry about inventory.

Several industries can use it

As the technology improves, 3D printing will become more affordable and widespread. The cost of materials will decrease, and 3d printer parts will become more versatile. The advantages of 3D printing include the ability to manufacture a wide range of materials. As the technology continues to advance, 3D printers will be able to accommodate a wider range of materials. And because of the increased speed and efficiency, they will become the heart of custom manufacturing and full-scale production for several industries.

Helps Reduce Costs

The advantages of 3D printing are the numerous benefits it can provide for a company. Its ability to produce a large number of different objects, such as a model of a car, is another benefit. It can be used to create prototypes, or small versions of real objects. This type of technology helps companies in reducing their costs. There are a variety of ways to use 3D printers.

Eliminates Prototyping Costs

Traditional manufacturing methods cannot compare with 3D printing. It can eliminate the need for costly prototyping, which can be expensive. It also eliminates the need for prototypes. The main disadvantage of 3D printing is that it produces a lot of waste. This is a major disadvantage, but if you have the right equipment, it can save you a lot of time and money.

Disadvantages of 3D Printing

On the other hand, there are disadvantages to 3D printing. Because the build chambers of most 3D printers are relatively small, it is difficult to produce large objects with these machines. As a result, many businesses have resorted to using mills or injection mold presses to produce larger items. While this approach may be faster and cheaper, it lacks the same level of control as traditional manufacturing methods.

Prints Products

In addition to its advantages, 3D printing is highly affordable and can be used for a variety of products. The disadvantages of 3D printing are primarily related to the need for raw materials and the complexity of the design. For example, if you’re a manufacturer, 3D printing can increase your productivity by eliminating the need for blueprints and allowing you to produce smaller versions of your finished product in less time.

Conclusion

While 3D printing has a number of advantages, it is a controversial process. The disadvantages of 3D printing are a major downside. Those who are interested in 3D printing should be aware of the disadvantages and benefits of using this technology. It may be a great addition to the manufacturing process, but it is not a replacement for it. It may help to improve the design of products or even manufacture entirely new ones.

How to Choose an Industrial 3D Printer

Choosing the right industrial 3D printer can be difficult. You need to make a careful decision, and you have to know what you want it to do before purchasing it. First, you need to know what type of tasks you want the machine to perform, such as prototypes or foundry engineering. You will probably need a large build volume, but there are other options. If you need a high-quality surface, you may be better off looking for a lower-volume, low-detail model.

High-Performance Materials

High-Performance Materials

Industrial 3D printers are often made of high-performance materials that have unique properties, including chemical resistance, non-flammability, and high-resolution layers. These materials are often used in automotive applications and can range from the PAEK family to materials reinforced with carbon fiber. If you’re using these materials for your manufacturing processes, you’ll need a machine with special build plates and nozzles.

Consider the Environment

Then you’ll need to consider the environment. For example, an industrial 3D printer can’t be loud and may disturb nearby workers. For this reason, you’ll want to look for a machine that is designed to minimize noise levels. The size of industrial 3D printers can also be limited by the workspace that they need to work in. The best industrial 3D printers will be compact and stylish, making them easy to store.

The next thing to consider when choosing an industrial 3D printer is the material. You’ll want to decide whether you need a high-performance material. High-performance materials have unique properties, such as chemical resistance, non-flammability, and low-toxicity. You’ll also want to consider the type of 3D printing technology that you need. If you’re going to use the machine for production, it’s important to get one with a higher resolution.

Prints with Metal or Plastic

Prints with Metal or Plastic

The second thing to consider is the material. If you need to print industrial parts, you’ll need to choose metal. Plastic 3D printers can be used to create a variety of different materials, while full metal 3D printers can be used for manufacturing. If your product needs to be durable, it’s best to buy a metal 3D printer. It can also be a long-term solution.

The third thing to consider is the material. Depending on the purpose of the printer, you may need a high-performance material for your industrial 3D printer. You can find a printer that uses high-performance materials, or a printer that uses materials that aren’t flammable. If you need the machine for a production-oriented application, you can consider a machine that uses high-performance materials.

Industrial 3D Printers

The last thing to consider when buying an industrial 3D printer is the type of material it will be printing. You will need a printer that can handle these materials. A high-performance material will be more durable than a normal plastic material. Besides being durable, an industrial 3D printer will be able to produce parts that require a high-performance surface. In other words, the machine should be capable of printing complex and intricate parts.

Summary

Industrial 3D printers are ideal for low-scale production of small parts. They have large build volumes and can be used for a variety of different applications. They can print large parts with varying infill percentages. If you plan to use an industrial 3D printer for your business, you should consider the following things. You can save a lot of money by choosing an industrial 3D printer. The cost of industrial machines can also be lower, so you can choose one that is affordable for your budget.

Clinical Research Standard Operating Procedure for Patient Confidentiality

The term SOP is widely used in business management practices. SOP means Standard operating procedures. Now, for a patient, a clinic or a hospital might be a place for saving lives, but it is also a place for business to its shareholders. So how do SOP works in clinics or hospitals? In this article we will learn about the clinical research standard operating procedures (SOPs).

Patient confidentiality is an ethical and legal consideration when drafting Clinical Research Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). The purpose of a Clinical Trial SOP is to outline the procedure used to protect confidential subject information for personnel or designees. The objective of this standard operating procedure (SOP) is to describe the methodology, process, and the responsibilities for maintaining confidentiality of subject information within clinical research in compliance with the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) Guideline for Good Clinical Practice (GCP) and applicable data protection laws, privacy laws, and regulations (e.g., the US Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 [HIPAA], the European Data Protection Directive 95/46/EC and its implementation into national law [known as “Privacy Requirements”]).

Clinical Research Standard

Protected Health InformationI is a combination of health information (e.g., diagnosis, condition, equipment, name of provider), AND one or more of the following identifiers:

a) Name

b) Geographic information smaller than a state (includes home address)

c) Date elements related to subject (admission, discharge, birth, etc.)

d) Telephone number(s)

e) Fax number(s)

f) E-mail address(es)

g) Social security numbers or other government-issued identification number(s)

h) Financial information (e.g., credit card data)

i) Medical record number(s)

j) Health plan numbers or health care identifier(s)

k) Account number(s)

l) Certificate/license number(s)

m) Medical device serial number(s)

n) Vehicle identification (license plate/serial number)

o) URL

p) IP address(es)

q) Biometric identifier(s) (finger/voice prints)

r) Full face photo

Clinical Research

s) Any other unique identifier(s) When working on a project that involves many different stakeholders, such as a CRO, sponsor and Clinical Site, it is important to identify which policy to use. This is an aspect that needs to be outlined before any Clinical Trial or handling a project for an outside Client. Often the Sponsor’s policies, procedures, and/or applicable forms and templates are following, if they have them. Most often the case is the Clinical Investigator Site must use their own set of standard operating procedures for patient confidentiality. When this occurs it is critical that a site can identify what is protected health information.